skip to main content
1. package pencils or pens for classroom
2. composition book—any color (available for purchase for $1)
3. 1 two-pocket folder (prongs are optional)
4. headphones
5. highlighter
6. sticky notes
Independent Reading
Each student is responsible for finding a bringing independent reading material to class each day. This should be a novel that he/she enjoys and reads both inside and outside of school. Student/teacher conferences will happen throughout the year pertaining to this activity. Please see the ALA's "Ultimate Teen Bookshelf" list for some suggestions.
Team 6 ELA
Team 6 ELA
Mrs. Hopewell has graciously shared with me her class materials and 10 years of expertise teaching 8th grade ELA. I am thankful for her support and if you see overlap between our classes it is intentional.
Topic Sentence- provides clear and easily identifiable purpose and main idea

Supporting Sentences- the details used in writing to prove, explain, or describe a topic

Conclusion Sentence-summarizes or retells the main idea as an effective way to end

Transitions-words or phrases that connect or tie ideas, words, sentences, or paragraphs together

Introductory Paragraph- the first paragraph that grabs the reader’s attention, makes him or her want to read the rest of the composition, and states the main idea

Thesis Statement-a statement that gives the main idea or focus of an essay

Body Paragraph-the details used in paragraphs to prove, explain, or describe a topic; all paragraphs in the body work together to support the main idea

Concluding Paragraph- the final paragraph that ties the ideas together and restates the main idea
Epic- a narrative poem,usually about the heroic adventures and heroic deeds of a folk hero (e.g.,Homer’s “Iliad”)

Lyric- a short poem that expresses personal feelings or emotions, often in a song-like style or form

Sonnet-a poem consisting of 14 lines with a formal rhyme scheme which expresses a thought or feeling in a unified way

Ballad- a narrative, often of folk origin and intended to be sung; consists of simple stanzas, usually with a refrain

Elegy- a song or poem written as a lament for the dead

Haiku-a style of Japanese poetry consisting of three unrhymed lines of 5,7,5 syllables; traditionally about nature or the seasons

Free Verse- a style of poetry that has an irregular rhyme or line pattern; verse that is developed according to the author’s own style

Elements of Fiction

about 1 year ago

By Elizabeth Lemerond


using a word or phrase to mean the exact opposite of its literal meaning, 3 types


where the reader or the audience is aware of a character’s mistakes, but the  character does not


 where the writer says one thing and means another

Irony of Situation

where there is greater difference between the purpose of an action and the result


the techniques the author uses to create and develop character (4 types)

thoughts, speech,and actions of the character

thoughts, speech,and actions of other characters

physical description

direct comments

Protagonist-the main character in the story

Antagonist- the person or force working against the main character
Foreshadowing-the clues or hints given by the author about what might happen later in the story
Flashback-a scene that interrupts the present action to describe an event that took place at an earlier time
Mood- the feeling the text creates in the reader (gloomy, scary, humorous, romantic, adventurous,lighthearted)

Setting- the time of day or year, historical period, place, situation; influence on story

Suspense- the growing tension and excitement the reader feels

Symbolism- the authors use of symbols to represent concrete ideas, events, or relationships

Theme- the underlying idea/message/statement the author is trying to convey

Tone- the writer/narrator’s attitude towards a subject through his or her own word choice (sarcastic,ironic, serious, funny, hesitant, angry, cheerful, etc.)

Style- the method in which the author writes (simple, blunt, flowery, fast paced, full of digressions,full of flashbacks, stream-of-consciousness, etc.)

Point of View

the perspective from which the story is told

 1st person

the narrator is a character who tells the story as he/she experience, saw, heard, and understood; identified by the use of first person pronouns: I, we, me, us, etc.

3rd person omniscient

the narrator is all-knowing with the ability to see into the minds of more than one character

 3rd person limited

he narrator has the ability to see into the mind of only one character


a struggle or problem between or among opposing forces that triggers the action in literature;  internal and external         

person vs. person   

person vs. society

person vs. him/herself 

person vs. nature

Plot- the action or sequence of related events that make up a story; consists of 5 basic elements

Exposition-the characters and setting are introduced

Rising Action-the complications that build to the climax; conflict(s) developed

Climax-the turning point in the story

Falling Action-events leading to the resolution

Resolution-conflict(s)resolved; loose ends are tied up
Simile- comparison of two unlike objects using like or as

Metaphor- direct comparison of two unlike objects

Personification- giving human attributes to non-human things

Hyperbole- a figure of speech in which the truth is exaggerated for emphasis or humor

Idiom- expression that means something different that the words actually mean; understandable to a particular culture, language, or group of people (e.g. “let the cat out of the bag”)
Inference- logical guess or conclusion based on evidence; read between the lines

Prediction- using prior knowledge and/or details to guess what will happen in the future

Drawing Conclusions-combining several pieces of information to make a decision

Sequencing-arranging events to aid in understanding of a text: developmental, chronological, level of difficulty (easy to hard, hard to easy), structure (part to whole/whole to part)

Author’s Purpose- the intent the author had when writing (to entertain, inform, persuade, etc.)

Compare/Contrast-identifying similarities or differences in the reading

Fact-a statement that can be proved or disproved

Opinion- a belief or conclusion that is not supported by evidence or facts

Visual Aids- visual representation of the information presented; usually helps clarify or explaininformation to the reader (graphs, charts, etc.)

Cause/Effect- describes a relationship between events; the first event in time is the cause and thesecond event is the effect

Bias- the writer’s attitude,outlook or prejudice; writer’s leaning or belief about a topic

Main Idea-the most important idea in a passage; the point the author is trying to make

Literal-adhering to the fact or the primary meaning or intent

Implied-a suggested meaning or intent (as opposed to explicit)

Explicit-clearly revealed or expressed

Propaganda- the spreading of ideas, information, or rumor for the purpose of helping or hurting a cause

Bandwagon-a persuasive technique that attempts to get people to follow the crowd using the logical fallacy that since “everyone likes it”, it must be good